Likewise, the amino acids in a protein-rich diet play a big role in both testosterone and muscle growth. As Chris Lockwood, Ph.D., explains, "When combined with training, which increases the sensitivity of androgen receptors, and the consumption of essential amino acids necessary to support protein synthesis, the effects of testosterone on muscle and performance is significantly amplified."[3,4]
Zinc plays a variety of roles in regulating the functions of enzymes and chemicals as well as your immune system. Zinc is also a potent antioxidant and can reduce the frequency of illnesses. Studies show that zinc may actually increase testosterone production. Large doses of zinc have actually been found to inhibit aromatase, thus reducing estrogen levels and increasing the effects of testosterone.
There are three categories of healthy fat. Number one is healthy saturated fat. The truth about saturated fat is it’s actually good for you if it’s the proper kind. Healthy saturated fat is found in coconut oil and raw, fermented dairy products like goat milk kefir, yogurt, or raw goat or sheep milk cheese. However, avoid conventional dairy because it will actually damper your testosterone.
Ginger has been used as medicine for centuries due to its potent antioxidant potential. It also exhibits anti-inflammatory properties which makes it best for natural therapeutics. It improves the sexual function and testosterone levels by stimulating the luteinizing hormone. It also enhances the sperm count, which makes it useful to solve infertility issues.
The first of the natural testosterone boosters is intermittent fasting. One of the biggest intermittent fasting benefits? It’s been shown to increase testosterone by nearly 200 percent or even up to 400 percent. (4) In addition, a study by the University of Virginia Medical School noted that growth hormone levels increased 2,000 percent over the baseline in men who ate no calories for 24 hours, and growth hormone levels are correlated with testosterone. (5)

There are a lot of test booster blends out there. A lot of them are junk. I have tried to cover the most effective herbs above. As always, I recommend doing your own research and experiment to see if you notice an effect. If you would like one easy herbal solution I recommend starting with Mike Mahlers Aggressive Strength product purely because I have solid anecdotal evidence of its effectiveness. But again, supplements should be seen purely as that - a supplement to a healthy diet, plenty of sleep, hard training with adequate rest.

Clinical trials of the effect of testosterone on glucose metabolism in men have occurred in diabetic and non-diabetic populations. Data specific to aging males is not available. A series of studies investigated the effects of testosterone or dihydrotestosterone given for 6 weeks or 3 months to middle aged, non-diabetic obese men (Marin, Holmang et al 1992; Marin, Krotkiewski et al 1992; Marin et al 1993). It was found that physiological treatment doses led to improved insulin resistance, as measured by the gold standard technique using a euglycemic clamp and/or serum glucose and insulin responses during glucose tolerance test. These improvements were associated with decreased central obesity, measured by computered tomography (CT) or waist-hip ratio, without reduced total fat mass. Insulin resistance improved more with testosterone than dihydrotestosterone treatment and beneficial effects were greater in men with lower baseline testosterone levels. Increasing testosterone levels into the supraphysiological range lead to decreased glucose tolerance.

Not only do these veggies increase your testosterone levels. They help you get rid of the excess estrogens from your body. Excess estrogens in the body block testosterone production by your endocrine system. When chewed, cruciferous veggies release a compound called Indole-3-carbinol. This compound converts excess estrogens into safer forms and thus helps you reduce those ugly man boobs.


FITNESS DISCLAIMER: The information contained in this site is for educational purposes only. Vigorous high-intensity exercise is not safe or suitable for everyone. You should consult a physician before beginning a new diet or exercise program and discontinue exercise immediately and consult your physician if you experience pain, dizziness, or discomfort. The results, if any, from the exercises may vary from person-to-person. Engaging in any exercise or fitness program involves the risk of injury. Mercola.com or our panel of fitness experts shall not be liable for any claims for injuries or damages resulting from or connected with the use of this site. Specific questions about your fitness condition cannot be answered without first establishing a trainer-client relationship.


Your first step should be to see your doctor. If you think you have low testosterone, we cannot stress enough that you should proceed with caution and talk to a medical professional — taking a booster can definitely do more harm than good. Low testosterone can be a symptom of more serious problems, like a pituitary disorder or a side-effect of medication, and a booster can mask the root cause. A doctor will be able to evaluate your testosterone levels with a simple blood test, and if you both decide a booster is the way to go, give the ingredients of any supplement a once-over to make sure that they’re not at risk of making your personal health situation worse.
Longitudinal studies in male aging studies have shown that serum testosterone levels decline with age (Harman et al 2001; Feldman et al 2002). Total testosterone levels fall at an average of 1.6% per year whilst free and bioavailable levels fall by 2%–3% per year. The reduction in free and bioavailable testosterone levels is larger because aging is also associated with increases in SHBG levels (Feldman et al 2002). Cross-sectional data supports these trends but has usually shown smaller reductions in testosterone levels with aging (Feldman et al 2002). This is likely to reflect strict entry criteria to cross-sectional studies so that young healthy men are compared to older healthy men. During the course of longitudinal studies some men may develop pathologies which accentuate decreases in testosterone levels.
Such sort of injuries varies in severity and extent of damage markedly from one person to the other and withdrawal of the drug/supplement coupled with proper medical attention suffice in terms of alleviating the symptoms.[8,12] This was observed in the present case. However, the liver injury observed here may not be confidently linked to product consumption as the subject later reported that the following recovery he consumed two more courses of the booster with no side effects. Tests performed following hospital discharge, and repeated use of the product showed AST and ALT to be slightly high, whereas the rest of the blood parameters tested appeared to be normal. The AST/ALT ratio is considered to be a very important parameter for the evaluation of liver diseases, such as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease,[13] though it is rarely considered alone. Overall, the evidence was inconclusive in the present work in terms of linking the use of a testosterone booster with liver injury. However, even though a single case report cannot establish causality with statistical power.[13] Further research on the usage of a commercial testosterone booster within large populations for a long period is necessary to investigate whether the symptoms shown in the present case were significantly present in other athletes consuming the same commercial product or not. To guarantee an optimal outcome with no severe side effects, further research is warranted to confirm the present findings and determine whether the effects observed in this case report would be statistically significant in larger samples.
Few of the most often asked questions I get are: what do I eat to maintain high testosterone levels, and if I have a specific list of recommended foods that increase testosterone naturally. While there are many food related posts scattered around this blog, I’ve never really made an all-around post about what I would put into a high T pantry. Until now.
Why bother with such common micronutrients? Because it's not uncommon for athletes to suffer from zinc and magnesium deficiencies, partly due to inadequate replenishing of levels after intense bouts of exercise. Deficiencies in these key minerals can lead to a poor anabolic hormone profile, impaired immune function, and increased cortisol, ultimately leading to decreases in strength and performance.[6]
Fitness Disclaimer: The information contained in this site is for educational purposes only. Vigorous high-intensity exercise is not safe or suitable for everyone. You should consult a physician before beginning a new diet or exercise program and discontinue exercise immediately and consult your physician if you experience pain, dizziness, or discomfort. The results, if any, from the exercises may vary from person-to-person. Engaging in any exercise or fitness program involves the risk of injury. Mercola.com or our panel of fitness experts shall not be liable for any claims for injuries or damages resulting from or connected with the use of this site. Specific questions about your fitness condition cannot be answered without first establishing a trainer-client relationship.

A recent study compared total and bioavailable testosterone levels with inflammatory cytokines in men aged 65 and over. There was an inverse correlation with the pro-inflammatory soluble interleukin-6 receptor, but no association with interleukin-6 (IL-6), highly sensitive CRP (hsCRP), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) or interleukin-1β (IL-1β (Maggio et al 2006). Another trial found that young men with idiopathic hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism had higher levels of proinflammatory factors interleukin-2 (IL-2), interleukin-4 (IL-4), complement C3c and total immunoglobulin in comparison to controls (Yesilova et al 2000). Testosterone treatment in a group of hypogonadal men, mostly with known coronary artery disease, induced anti-inflammatory changes in the cytokine profile of reduced IL-1β and TNF-α and increased IL-10 (Malkin, Pugh, Jones et al 2004).
He said it's also important to point out there may be different thresholds for different people. "One man might get low libido at 325 milligrams per deciliter, while another might not get low libido until 450," he said. As for doctors who say that every man of a certain age will benefit from TRT, Dr. Swerdloff said, "It should not be treatment based on age. It should be treatment based on the best available laboratory and clinical data. Those patients who don't meet the criteria for treatment should not be treated unless there is some logical reason why they are outliers from the usual type of pattern."

Your diet is the best source of zinc; along with protein-rich foods like meats and fish, other good dietary sources of zinc include raw milk, raw cheese, beans, and yogurt or kefir made from raw milk. It can be difficult to obtain enough dietary zinc if you're a vegetarian, and also for meat-eaters as well, largely because of conventional farming methods that rely heavily on chemical fertilizers and pesticides. These chemicals deplete the soil of nutrients ... nutrients like zinc that must be absorbed by plants in order to be passed on to you.

Testosterone is a primary male sex hormone which is crucial to bone formation, muscle building, fat burning, and energy & mood control in men. Made in vast amounts in the testes and adrenal glands, this hormone also plays a big part in the development of male reproductive tissues, the testis and prostate. Manly traits are also linked with the influx of this hormone. These manly traits are the competition drive, libido and the will to take risks.
Free testosterone (T) is transported into the cytoplasm of target tissue cells, where it can bind to the androgen receptor, or can be reduced to 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) by the cytoplasmic enzyme 5α-reductase. DHT binds to the same androgen receptor even more strongly than testosterone, so that its androgenic potency is about 5 times that of T.[114] The T-receptor or DHT-receptor complex undergoes a structural change that allows it to move into the cell nucleus and bind directly to specific nucleotide sequences of the chromosomal DNA. The areas of binding are called hormone response elements (HREs), and influence transcriptional activity of certain genes, producing the androgen effects.
The biggest problem with supplementing your testosterone levels is it can shut off your own natural production and it can also permanently lower your sperm count. Taking testosterone boosters may also leave you open to some of the other unwanted side effects, like acne, male pattern baldness, mood swings and aggressive behaviour. To give yourself the best possible chance of avoiding these side effects, you need to see an expert before going for boosters.
The most common "out of balance" testosterone levels are found to be on the low side of normal; this occurs because a male's highest testosterone level usually peaks at about age 20, and then it decreases slowly with age. It has been suggested that a 1% decrease in testosterone level per year is not unusual for middle-aged (30 to 50 years old) and older males. While this decrease may not be noticeable in some men, others may experience significant changes starting in their middle-aged years or more commonly at age 60 and above. This drop in testosterone levels is sometimes termed hypogonadism, "male menopause" or andropause.
A recent study compared total and bioavailable testosterone levels with inflammatory cytokines in men aged 65 and over. There was an inverse correlation with the pro-inflammatory soluble interleukin-6 receptor, but no association with interleukin-6 (IL-6), highly sensitive CRP (hsCRP), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) or interleukin-1β (IL-1β (Maggio et al 2006). Another trial found that young men with idiopathic hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism had higher levels of proinflammatory factors interleukin-2 (IL-2), interleukin-4 (IL-4), complement C3c and total immunoglobulin in comparison to controls (Yesilova et al 2000). Testosterone treatment in a group of hypogonadal men, mostly with known coronary artery disease, induced anti-inflammatory changes in the cytokine profile of reduced IL-1β and TNF-α and increased IL-10 (Malkin, Pugh, Jones et al 2004).
Below, we have the runners up. They are still potent supplements and we’ve had great runs with them. Keep in mind though, there are a LOT of test boosters we’ve tried that are not making this list. We wish we could talk poorly about specific supplements, but that’s a legal issue; so instead we only focus on the best supplements we’ve taken. If we took it and didn’t like it – we wont write about it.
Growth of spermatogenic tissue in testicles, male fertility, penis or clitoris enlargement, increased libido and frequency of erection or clitoral engorgement occurs. Growth of jaw, brow, chin, and nose and remodeling of facial bone contours, in conjunction with human growth hormone occurs.[21] Completion of bone maturation and termination of growth. This occurs indirectly via estradiol metabolites and hence more gradually in men than women. Increased muscle strength and mass, shoulders become broader and rib cage expands, deepening of voice, growth of the Adam's apple. Enlargement of sebaceous glands. This might cause acne, subcutaneous fat in face decreases. Pubic hair extends to thighs and up toward umbilicus, development of facial hair (sideburns, beard, moustache), loss of scalp hair (androgenetic alopecia), increase in chest hair, periareolar hair, perianal hair, leg hair, armpit hair.

A blood test may not be enough to determine your levels, because testosterone levels can fluctuate during the day. Once you determine that you do have low levels, there are a number of options to take. There are synthetic and bioidentical testosterone products out on the market, but I advise using bioidentical hormones like DHEA. DHEA is a hormone secreted by your adrenal glands. This substance is the most abundant precursor hormone in the human body. It is crucial for the creation of vital hormones, including testosterone and other sex hormones.

The participants were seen every 4 weeks. Blood was taken to measure hormone levels, and questionnaires were given to assess physical function, health status, vitality, and sexual function. Body fat and muscle measurements were also taken at the beginning and end of the 16 weeks. The study was funded in part by NIH’s National Institute on Aging (NIA) and National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK). Results appeared in the September 12, 2013, issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

Both testosterone and 5α-DHT are metabolized mainly in the liver.[1][151] Approximately 50% of testosterone is metabolized via conjugation into testosterone glucuronide and to a lesser extent testosterone sulfate by glucuronosyltransferases and sulfotransferases, respectively.[1] An additional 40% of testosterone is metabolized in equal proportions into the 17-ketosteroids androsterone and etiocholanolone via the combined actions of 5α- and 5β-reductases, 3α-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, and 17β-HSD, in that order.[1][151][152] Androsterone and etiocholanolone are then glucuronidated and to a lesser extent sulfated similarly to testosterone.[1][151] The conjugates of testosterone and its hepatic metabolites are released from the liver into circulation and excreted in the urine and bile.[1][151][152] Only a small fraction (2%) of testosterone is excreted unchanged in the urine.[151]


"The hard part," said Dr. Anawalt, "is the man who is 50 pounds overweight and sedentary, who sees a TV ad and goes to see his doctor. Let's say he has a thoughtful doctor who does the right test, at the right time of day (morning), and the test comes back low. Many of these guys will have low or slightly low testosterone. We have no evidence for whether or not it's a benefit to give these guys testosterone." He added that concern about their testosterone level could be a good thing if it spurs men to lose weight and exercise. "A low testosterone level can be a marker of poor health," he said.
Like other supplements and medication, testosterone therapy comes with risks and possible side effects. This is particularly true if you try to take it for normal aging rather than for treatment of a condition. Also, the Cleveland Clinic points out that the effects that these supplements may have on your heart and prostate can lead to a number of potential issues. Complications include:
The effects of testosterone in humans and other vertebrates occur by way of multiple mechanisms: by activation of the androgen receptor (directly or as DHT), and by conversion to estradiol and activation of certain estrogen receptors.[109][110] Androgens such as testosterone have also been found to bind to and activate membrane androgen receptors.[111][112][113]
Likewise, there are also natural ways to pep up your testosterone through diet, exercise and other lifestyle changes. So if you’re the wrong side of 30 and not feeling as strong in the gym anymore, or if you’re gaining weight where there wasn’t weight before, or if you can't find the energy to finish the day, let alone pleasure your partner, then keep reading — our expert advice may restore you to the peak of masculinity.
Brassaiopsis glomerulata is a tree indigenous to Vietnam. While the plant has traditionally been used to remedy back pain and rheumatism, studies show that Brassaiopsis also contains a few compounds that inhibit aromatase. As mentioned above, aromatase is an enzyme that can turn androgens, particularly testosterone, into estrogen. Too much aromatase can significantly reduce testosterone levels while increasing estrogen, causing an imbalance in your body’s chemistry. By inhibiting aromatase, the compounds in Brassaiopsis can effectively boost testosterone levels and prevent them from turning into estrogen.
That said, magnesium is one of a few ingredients demonstrated to impact testosterone levels. Researchers at Italy’s University of Palermo found that magnesium improved participants’ anabolic hormone status — including their testosterone levels. In a follow-up study, they confirm that even adjusting for age differences in their participant group, “magnesium was positively associated with total testosterone.” They propose that magnesium supplementation might help improve muscle performance in aging men — a group particularly vulnerable to declining/low testosterone levels. Outside of Italy, researchers at Turkey’s Selçuk University found that magnesium supplementation increased testosterone levels for both athletes and more sedentary men alike.
Now, you may not accept it when you hear people saying that saturated fats and cholesterol are good for you. But these elements are crucial for testosterone production. Without cholesterol, the Leydig cells inside the testes cannot synthesize the testosterone hormone. Leydig cells absorb the cholesterol from our blood and release T. Eggs quickly become the #1 source to meet these needs. It is so because they are cheap, easy to find and you can use them in many ways while cooking.
In addition to its role as a natural hormone, testosterone is used as a medication, for instance in the treatment of low testosterone levels in men and breast cancer in women.[10] Since testosterone levels decrease as men age, testosterone is sometimes used in older men to counteract this deficiency. It is also used illicitly to enhance physique and performance, for instance in athletes.
That’s what we like to hear, new formula beast super test or old formula? We have not knocked out the complete 10 boosters because we’re shooting for new formulations in our ranking. This list is meant to move forward effectively and not get outdated. But trust us, as new t-boosters come out that are worthy of top 10 ranking, we will get them on the list quickly.
It seems that adequate testosterone levels are an important influence on sexual symptoms in the aging male and also influence the response of men to PDE-5 inhibitors, the first line treatment for erectile dysfunction in men. Many would now suggest screening for testosterone deficiency in all men presenting with erectile dysfunction (Gore and Rajfer 2004; Shabsigh 2005). This would seem appropriate because, in addition to benefits on sexual function, identification and treatment of hypogonadal men with testosterone could improve other symptoms of hypogonadism and protect against other conditions such as osteoporosis.

Mood disturbance and dysthymia are part of the clinical syndrome of hypogonadism. Epidemiological studies have found a positive association between testosterone levels and mood, and depressed aging males have lower testosterone levels than controls (Barrett-Connor, Von Muhlen et al 1999). Furthermore, induction of a hypogonadal state during treatment of men for prostate cancer leads to an increase in depression scores (Almeida et al 2004). Trials of testosterone treatment effects on mood have varied in outcome. Data on the effects on men with depression are conflicting (Seidman et al 2001; Pope et al 2003) but there is evidence that testosterone treatment of older hypogonadal men does result in improvements in mood (Wang et al 1996) and that this may occur through changes in regional brain perfusion (Azad et al 2003).

^ Southren AL, Gordon GG, Tochimoto S, Pinzon G, Lane DR, Stypulkowski W (May 1967). "Mean plasma concentration, metabolic clearance and basal plasma production rates of testosterone in normal young men and women using a constant infusion procedure: effect of time of day and plasma concentration on the metabolic clearance rate of testosterone". The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. 27 (5): 686–94. doi:10.1210/jcem-27-5-686. PMID 6025472.
"Low T" is anything but inevitable. BMJ's Drug and Therapeutics Bulletin says that around 80 percent of 60-year-old men, and half of those in their eighties, have testosterone levels within the normal range for younger men. It concluded, "The evidence that an age-related reduction in testosterone levels causes specific symptoms is weak." The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) meanwhile has not approved testosterone use to improve strength, athletic performance, physical appearance, or prevent aging. And a 2004 report from the Institute of Medicine ("Testosterone and Aging: Clinical Research Directions") called TRT for age-related testosterone decline a "scientifically unproven method."
Nutritional developers formulated Nugenix® with Testofen®, a key natural ingredient to help boost “free” testosterone along with resistance training. This key ingredient is carefully extracted from the fenugreek plant. A Testofen® study in Irvine, California indicated positive free testosterone-related results. Nugenix also includes L-Citrulline Malate, Tribulus, Zinc, plus Vitamins B6 and B12 to help promote overall health and performance.*

Stick to protocols that stress large degrees of muscle mass and are moderate- to high-intensity. Additionally, more seasoned gym-goers may want to incorporate forced repetitions periodically into their programs, as testosterone increases have been observed with this type of training.14 Incorporating other post-failure training techniques such as dropsets or partials may similarly be associated with higher T production.
Your body’s circadian rhythm essentially resets itself every night and releases chemicals like cortisol, which contribute to the overall hormone balance that can prevent low T-levels. I have even heard one endocrinologist claim that one hour of sleep between 10 p.m. and 2 a.m. has the same healing effects on your body as two hours of sleep before or after this timeslot!

Great article with a lot of useful information. I completely agree with your top three picks. I have done a ton of research as well. Currently I am taking Testogen for over two months and it has worked for me. It has double my low T and I am 61 years old. I do feel better and have more energy. Even have morning wood sometimes and haven’t for a long time.
Grape seed extract is another ingredient with not enough research to suggest a dosage. Grape seed extract can interact with drugs like “blood thinners, NSAID painkillers (like aspirin, Advil, and Aleve), certain heart medicines, cancer treatments, and others.” If this sounds like you (or if you ever pop an Advil to clear off a headache), you’ll need to speak with a doctor to make sure this supplement is safe to take.
Ginger has been used as medicine for centuries due to its potent antioxidant potential. It also exhibits anti-inflammatory properties which makes it best for natural therapeutics. It improves the sexual function and testosterone levels by stimulating the luteinizing hormone. It also enhances the sperm count, which makes it useful to solve infertility issues.
“I see people who've been doing things in the gym and they've never been told that it can shut off your own production and it can also irreversibly lower your sperm count,” says Roked. “These are all quite serious issues that even though they may be rare if it happened to you it would cause a big impact on your life, so I'd say it's always best to do things with a specialist, but also for anyone it's not a great idea to take things that aren't needed."
Write down a list of the people you need to forgive and then do so. You can do that just yourself, between you and God, or you can do that in person — but it really is important. You can also turn to the Bible and other personal growth books, or seek out the help of a counselor or a good church. Really take care of those emotional issues, specifically resentment, unforgiveness, anger and frustration, and you’ll see that’s going to really help you cleanse you and detoxify spiritually. It’s going to also help naturally raise your testosterone levels.
For people who are worried about low or high testosterone, a doctor may perform a blood test to measure the amount of the hormone in the patient's blood. When doctors find low-T, they may prescribe testosterone therapy, in which the patient takes an artificial version of the hormone. This is available in the following forms: a gel to be applied to the upper arms, shoulders or abdomen daily; a skin patch put on the body or scrotum twice a day; a solution applied to the armpit; injections every two or three weeks; a patch put on the gums twice a day; or implants that last four to six months.

The mineral zinc is important for testosterone production, and supplementing your diet for as little as six weeks has been shown to cause a marked improvement in testosterone among men with low levels.1 Likewise, research has shown that restricting dietary sources of zinc leads to a significant decrease in testosterone, while zinc supplementation increases it2 -- and even protects men from exercised-induced reductions in testosterone levels.3
Did you know that a meat-free diet can lower your T-levels by 14%? When your body lacks protein, it boosts the production of other hormones that deactivate testosterone. However, on the other hand, it has been found that a diet that is excessively rich in saturated fats found in meats like beef and lamb can also lower T-levels. Venison is the middle ground and is also excellent for muscle growth.
Although her male patients may or may not get the low testosterone diagnosis they believe Dr. Wyne should give them, they will get a comprehensive examination. Besides their testosterone level, she will look at their triglycerides, glucose (blood sugar) tolerance, liver enzymes, and other counts as well as the condition of their testicles. "I need to know if they're normal going into it," she explained.
I have been using HerbalT for almost two months. I noticed improvement in my sleep, energy and mood within 3-4 days. Prior to use, I had a sleeping disorder and would wake up tired in the morning. My energy level was low and the sexual desire needed a trigger. After using this product, my energy level has improved. I wake up in the mornings and feel that my system is default. My mood has also improved. I don’t think to feel/think negative and hardly stress over anything.
Both men and women with Alzheimer’s Disease were found to have an increased concentration of SHBG and decreased free androgen index when compared with controls (Paoletti et al 2004). In a prospective study of 574 men whose baseline age span was 32–87 years and who were followed for a mean of 19.1 years (range, 4–37), the risk of developing Alzheimers’ Disease decreased 26 percent for each 10 unit increase in free testosterone index. The authors concluded that testosterone may be important for the prevention and treatment of AD (Moffat et al 2004).
Conflicting results have been obtained concerning the importance of testosterone in maintaining cardiovascular health.[29][30] Nevertheless, maintaining normal testosterone levels in elderly men has been shown to improve many parameters that are thought to reduce cardiovascular disease risk, such as increased lean body mass, decreased visceral fat mass, decreased total cholesterol, and glycemic control.[31]
The bones and the brain are two important tissues in humans where the primary effect of testosterone is by way of aromatization to estradiol. In the bones, estradiol accelerates ossification of cartilage into bone, leading to closure of the epiphyses and conclusion of growth. In the central nervous system, testosterone is aromatized to estradiol. Estradiol rather than testosterone serves as the most important feedback signal to the hypothalamus (especially affecting LH secretion).[115] In many mammals, prenatal or perinatal "masculinization" of the sexually dimorphic areas of the brain by estradiol derived from testosterone programs later male sexual behavior.[116]
Findings that improvements in serum glucose, serum insulin, insulin resistance or glycemic control, in men treated with testosterone are accompanied by reduced measures of central obesity, are in line with other studies showing a specific effect of testosterone in reducing central or visceral obesity (Rebuffe-Scrive et al 1991; Marin, Holmang et al 1992). Furthermore, studies that have shown neutral effects of testosterone on glucose metabolism have not measured (Corrales et al 2004), or shown neutral effects (Lee et al 2005) (Tripathy et al 1998; Bhasin et al 2005) on central obesity. Given the known association of visceral obesity with insulin resistance, it is possible that testosterone treatment of hypogonadal men acts to improve insulin resistance and diabetes through an effect in reducing central obesity. This effect can be explained by the action of testosterone in inhibiting lipoprotein lipase and thereby reducing triglyceride uptake into adipocytes (Sorva et al 1988), an action which seems to occur preferentially in visceral fat (Marin et al 1995; Marin et al 1996). Visceral fat is thought to be more responsive to hormonal changes due to a greater concentration of androgen receptors and increased vascularity compared with subcutaneous fat (Bjorntorp 1996). Further explanation of the links between hypogonadism and obesity is offered by the hypogonadal-obesity-adipocytokine cycle hypothesis (see Figure 1). In this model, increases in body fat lead to increases in aromatase levels, in addition to insulin resistance, adverse lipid profiles and increased leptin levels. Increased action of aromatase in metabolizing testosterone to estrogen, reduces testosterone levels which induces further accumulation of visceral fat. Higher leptin levels and possibly other factors, act at the pituitary to suppress gonadotrophin release and exacerbate hypogonadism (Cohen 1999; Kapoor et al 2005). Leptin has also been shown to reduce testosterone secretion from rodent testes in vitro (Tena-Sempere et al 1999). A full review of the relationship between testosterone, insulin resistance and diabetes can be found elsewhere (Kapoor et al 2005; Jones 2007).
Alpha-5-Reductase Inhibition– This method for test boosting reduces the concentration of Alpha-5-Reductase, which is an enzyme throughout the body which converts active testosterone to DHT. The effect of this inhibition prevents the degradation of testosterone and by doing so, raises testosterone concentrations in the body. This type of A5R inhibition is also the primary method for treating prostate enlargement, which is caused by high levels of DHT.
In Australia, where it is illegal for drug makers to advertise directly to consumers—as it is everywhere except the United States and New Zealand— Dr. Vitry told me via e-mail that the country's FDA-like regulatory body, Medicines Australia, fined Bayer a minuscule, but symbolic, 10,000 Australian dollars for breaching MA's code of conduct in its TRT disease-awareness campaign. Although Bayer implied that low testosterone was the most prevalent cause of the symptoms described, and that there was a high incidence of low T, Vitry said Medicines Australia didn't nail Bayer for illegal direct-to-consumer advertising because its campaign "did not encourage patients to seek a prescription for a specific testosterone product."

Dr. Anthony’s Notes: Vitamin D has about 100 other beneficial body functions outside of it's impact on testosterone. Make sure you take the active Vitamin D3 (not D2 – from plant sources!) It’s also advisable to get 20 minutes of sunshine daily (weather permitting) – without sunscreen. Verdict: this is one of the natural testosterone supplements that work. Best Food Sources of Vitamin D3: Wild Alaskan Salmon (#1), Sardines, Eggs How To Take Vitamin D3: Using 3000-5000IU of Vitamin D3 per day is a good safe, research supported dose. Your physician can also test your blood for D3 levels for more precise monitoring.


Afrisham, R., Sadejh-Nejadi, S., SoliemaniFar, O., Kooti, W., Ashtary-Larky, D., Alamiri, F., … Khaneh-Keshi, A. (2016, November 24). Salivary testosterone levels under psychological stress and its relationship with rumination and five personality traits in medical students. Psychiatry Investigations, 13(6), 637–643. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5128352/

The largest amounts of testosterone (>95%) are produced by the testes in men,[2] while the adrenal glands account for most of the remainder. Testosterone is also synthesized in far smaller total quantities in women by the adrenal glands, thecal cells of the ovaries, and, during pregnancy, by the placenta.[126] In the testes, testosterone is produced by the Leydig cells.[127] The male generative glands also contain Sertoli cells, which require testosterone for spermatogenesis. Like most hormones, testosterone is supplied to target tissues in the blood where much of it is transported bound to a specific plasma protein, sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG).


Testosterone levels are usually highest during your adolescent years, but since your hormones fluctuate regularly during this time of your life, it's best to let them naturally adjust themselves rather than attempting to change them yourself.[23] If you're concerned about low testosterone as a teenager, consult with your doctor before making any changes.

Testosterone may prove to be an effective treatment in female sexual arousal disorders,[52] and is available as a dermal patch. There is no FDA approved androgen preparation for the treatment of androgen insufficiency; however, it has been used off-label to treat low libido and sexual dysfunction in older women. Testosterone may be a treatment for postmenopausal women as long as they are effectively estrogenized.[52]


Like other steroid hormones, testosterone is derived from cholesterol (see figure).[124] The first step in the biosynthesis involves the oxidative cleavage of the side-chain of cholesterol by cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc, CYP11A1), a mitochondrial cytochrome P450 oxidase with the loss of six carbon atoms to give pregnenolone. In the next step, two additional carbon atoms are removed by the CYP17A1 (17α-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase) enzyme in the endoplasmic reticulum to yield a variety of C19 steroids.[125] In addition, the 3β-hydroxyl group is oxidized by 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase to produce androstenedione. In the final and rate limiting step, the C17 keto group androstenedione is reduced by 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase to yield testosterone.
Late onset hypogonadism reflects a particular pathophysiology and it may not be appropriate to extrapolate results from studies concerning the effects of testosterone in treating hypogonadism of other etiology to aging males. For this reason, the age of men treated in clinical trials is certainly relevant. Other important factors include patient comorbidities and the preparation and route of testosterone replacement used in the study, which can affect the production of estrogen and dihydrotestosterone, testosterone’s active metabolites
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In Australia, where it is illegal for drug makers to advertise directly to consumers—as it is everywhere except the United States and New Zealand— Dr. Vitry told me via e-mail that the country's FDA-like regulatory body, Medicines Australia, fined Bayer a minuscule, but symbolic, 10,000 Australian dollars for breaching MA's code of conduct in its TRT disease-awareness campaign. Although Bayer implied that low testosterone was the most prevalent cause of the symptoms described, and that there was a high incidence of low T, Vitry said Medicines Australia didn't nail Bayer for illegal direct-to-consumer advertising because its campaign "did not encourage patients to seek a prescription for a specific testosterone product."
Intracoronary artery infusion of testosterone causes significant coronary artery dilatation and not constriction as previously thought (Webb et al 1999). When degree of coronary obstruction is assessed by angiography, there is a direct relationship between degree of coronary artery narrowing and reduced testosterone levels (Phillips et al 1994). Men with low testosterone levels have been observed to have: premature atherosclerosis, increased visceral adipose tissue, hyperinsulinemia, and other risk factors for myocardial infarction (Phillips 2005). Insulin resistance has been shown to be associated with a decrease in Leydig cell secretion of testosterone (Pitteloud et al 2005). Muller and colleagues suggest that low endogenous total testosterone and SHBG levels increase the risk of metabolic syndrome in aging and aged men. They demonstrated that low levels of testosterone are related to lower insulin sensitivity and higher fasting insulin levels (Muller et al 2005). These authors speculate that testosterone might play a protective role in the development of metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance, diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease in aging men.
At the present time, it is suggested that androgen replacement should take the form of natural testosterone. Some of the effects of testosterone are mediated after conversion to estrogen or dihydrotestosterone by the enzymes aromatase and 5a-reductase enzymes respectively. Other effects occur independently of the traditional action of testosterone via the classical androgen receptor- for example, its action as a vasodilator via a cell membrane action as described previously. It is therefore important that the androgen used to treat hypogonadism is amenable to the action of these metabolizing enzymes and can also mediate the non-androgen receptor actions of testosterone. Use of natural testosterone ensures this and reduces the chance of non-testosterone mediated adverse effects. There are now a number of testosterone preparations which can meet these recommendations and the main factor in deciding between them is patient choice.

Before taking any supplements, at either end of the spectrum, you need to check whether it’s low testosterone that is actually causing the problem. Taking something that you don’t need could potentially cause irreversible issues. For that reason, steroid hormones like DHEA should never be prescribed without having blood tests first. Roked also recommends regular blood monitoring to make sure you’re taking the correct dosage.
Many studies demonstrate an improvement in mood of hypogonadal men treated with testosterone (Wang et al 1996; Azad et al 2003). The relationship between testosterone status and mood, particularly depression, remains unresolved. Using Beck’s Depression Inventory, Barrett-Connor and colleagues found that the depression score worsened as men aged, exactly at a time when testosterone levels are decreasing (Barrett-Connor et al 1999). Pope and colleagues found that testosterone treatment in men with refractory depression lowered the Hamilton Depression rating scale and the Clinical Global Impression severity rating (Pope et al 2003). The Beck Depression Inventory remained unchanged in Pope’s study.
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A loophole in FDA regulations allows pharmaceutical marketers to urge men to talk to their doctors if they have certain "possible signs" of testosterone deficiency. "Virtually everybody asks about this now because the direct-to-consumer marketing is so aggressive," says Dr. Michael O'Leary, a urologist at Harvard-affiliated Brigham and Women's Hospital. "Tons of men who would never have asked me about it before started to do so when they saw ads that say 'Do you feel tired?'"
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