The effect excess testosterone has on the body depends on both age and sex. It is unlikely that adult men will develop a disorder in which they produce too much testosterone and it is often difficult to spot that an adult male has too much testosterone. More obviously, young children with too much testosterone may enter a false growth spurt and show signs of early puberty and young girls may experience abnormal changes to their genitalia. In both males and females, too much testosterone can lead to precocious puberty and result in infertility. 
^ Jump up to: a b Sapienza P, Zingales L, Maestripieri D (September 2009). "Gender differences in financial risk aversion and career choices are affected by testosterone". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 106 (36): 15268–73. Bibcode:2009PNAS..10615268S. doi:10.1073/pnas.0907352106. PMC 2741240. PMID 19706398.

It is the intent of AMB WELLNESS PARTNERS LLC (“Sponsor") to operate products through this Website consistent with the work of Dr. Anthony Balduzzi, NMD. However, Sponsor is not a healthcare practitioner or provider. To the extent that any information is provided through this Website, it is for general informational purposes only and is not intended to constitute or substitute for (i) medical advice or counseling, (ii) the practice of medicine including but not limited to psychiatry, psychology, psychotherapy or the provision of health care diagnosis or treatment, (iii) the creation of a physician-patient or clinical relationship, or (iv) an endorsement, a recommendation or a sponsorship of any third party, product or service by the Sponsor or any of the Sponsor's related companies, agents, employees, consultants or service providers. If you have or suspect that you have a medical problem, contact your health care provider. Information and statements regarding dietary supplements available on this Website have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration and are not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease. FTC LEGAL DISCLAIMER: Results are atypical, and your results may vary. Testimonials are not purported to be typical results, and your weight loss, if any, may vary. Please see our full FTC Legal Disclaimer for a comprehensive disclaimer of risks of use, typical results, testimonials, & other legal items. READ FULL DISCLAIMER & TERMS.
Autopsy studies have found histological prostate cancer to be very common, with one series showing a prevalence of greater than fifty percent in men over age sixty (Holund 1980). The majority of histological cancers go undetected so that the clinical incidence of the disease is much lower, but it is still the most prevalent non-skin cancer in men (Jemal et al 2003). Prostate cancer is also unusual in comparison to other adult cancers in that the majority of those with the disease will die of other causes. Treatment of prostate cancer with androgen deprivation is known to be successful and is widely practiced, indicating an important role for testosterone in modifying the behavior of prostate cancer. In view of this, testosterone treatment is absolutely contraindicated in any case of known or suspected prostate cancer. The question of whether testosterone treatment could cause new cases of prostate cancer, or more likely cause progression of undiagnosed histological prostate cancer that would otherwise have remained occult, is an important consideration when treating ageing males with testosterone.
If testosterone deficiency occurs during fetal development, then male characteristics may not completely develop. If testosterone deficiency occurs during puberty, a boy’s growth may slow and no growth spurt will be seen. The child may have reduced development of pubic hair, growth of the penis and testes, and deepening of the voice. Around the time of puberty, boys with too little testosterone may also have less than normal strength and endurance, and their arms and legs may continue to grow out of proportion with the rest of their body.
Beast Sports recommends taking four capsules twice per day. The pills are about the same size as a multivitamin or a Tylenol liquid gel pill — not tiny tablets, unfortunately, but they aren’t horse pills. They smell like the boxes of raisins your Mom packed into your school lunch, but stale, like they were forgotten in the pantry for a few years, and a little spicy, like she sprinkled curry powder on them. If you follow this eight pills per day regime, your $46 bottle will last you twenty-two days, and cost you about $2 per day.

On review of the patient’s history, he was found to have undergone laboratory tests before starting to use the aforementioned testosterone booster product. All blood parameters (testosterone hormone and full chemical profile) before product intake were in the normal range. A physical examination that included blood pressure and pulse assessments showed nothing out of the ordinary, and the man appeared to be in good condition before product consumption. After that medical checkup, the athlete began to consume the product for 42 continuous days divided into 2 cycles (each cycle comprised 24 days). The daily dose was a single pack of Universal Nutrition Animal Stak (ingredients are listed in Table 1), following the exact direction of the manufacturing company hoping to get the best results.

The bones and the brain are two important tissues in humans where the primary effect of testosterone is by way of aromatization to estradiol. In the bones, estradiol accelerates ossification of cartilage into bone, leading to closure of the epiphyses and conclusion of growth. In the central nervous system, testosterone is aromatized to estradiol. Estradiol rather than testosterone serves as the most important feedback signal to the hypothalamus (especially affecting LH secretion).[115] In many mammals, prenatal or perinatal "masculinization" of the sexually dimorphic areas of the brain by estradiol derived from testosterone programs later male sexual behavior.[116]
Visit your doctor if you’re experiencing symptoms for the first time. Low testosterone levels cause similar symptoms to other conditions, so it’s best to get a diagnosis from a doctor. During your appointment, talk to your doctor about any medications you are taking, as well as any recent life changes, as there may be an easy-to-treat underlying cause for your low hormones.[19] Here are the most common symptoms of low testosterone:[20]
Finally, we looked at the proprietary blends of our remaining boosters, and dug into their ingredient lists. Supplements frequently include ingredients known for their “folk-lore” value; they’re believed to work, even when there isn’t any scientific background to prove it. Though we didn’t ding points if an ingredient wasn’t proven to be good (just so long as it wasn’t proven to be bad), we didn’t want to include any ingredient with evidence of causing harm.

Testosterone is a vital hormone for men, but just like estrogen in women, it goes down as you age. This is a natural process that has many drawbacks. In men, testosterone is responsible for hair growth, bone density, proper weight distribution, sex drive, muscle mass, red cell production, and so much more. But did you know that you can actually increase your testosterone levels as opposed to letting them dwindle?


The final two studies looked directly at soy vs testosterone levels. The first looked at introducing consumption of soya flour on testosterone levels. They found that those who ate the Soy flour lowered their T levels during the study (43). And the second study looked at the consumption of soy protein isolates (powder) in healthy men. They found that testosterone levels decreased upon consumption of soy powder (45).

Unlike women, who experience a rapid drop in hormone levels at menopause, men experience a more gradual decrease of testosterone levels over time. The older the man, the more likely he is to experience below-normal testosterone levels. Men with testosterone levels below 300 ng/dL may experience some degree of low T symptoms. Your doctor can conduct a blood test and recommend treatment if needed. They can discuss the potential benefits and risks of testosterone medication, as well.
When many people think of someone with a high level of testosterone, they may picture a man loaded with strength, sexual prowess, and machismo. But while high-T has been correlated with all those things, it’s also been correlated with aggression, sexual misconduct, and violence. One of testosterone’s most common uses—as a performance-enhancing steroid—illustrates both sides of the hormone. Injecting steroids can be a quick way for athletes to dramatically improve performance, but the side effects can also be extreme, and can include excessive body hair growth, sexual dysfunction, and the hard-to-corral anger known as “roid rage.”
What are the health benefits of kale? Kale is a leafy green vegetable featured in a variety of meals. With more nutritional value than spinach, kale may help to improve blood glucose, lower the risk of cancer, reduce blood pressure, and prevent asthma. Here, learn about the benefits and risks of consuming kale. We also feature tasty serving suggestions. Read now
You should absolutely go. What you're experiencing is likely just normal puberty changes, but a doctor can set your mind at ease or offer you a solution. Doctors are not there to judge or embarrass you but to help. Don't let your fear and embarrassment stop you from getting the information and help you want. Ask your parent you schedule you a check up.
Nuts are a cool choice that you can make every day that will bring up your testosterone with every handful. Men who eat high amounts of monounsaturated fats show the highest levels of testosterone. And the humble nuts contain a healthy supply of testosterone increasing monounsaturated fats, zinc, protein and omega-3 fatty acids. Also, nutrients like B vitamins and minerals are found in nuts. However, it is crucial to know which nuts to put in your daily diet.
Increase testosterone if you’re an adult with abnormally low levels. Under most circumstances, adults who have been medically diagnosed with low testosterone levels can safely increase their levels, and natural methods can be some of the healthiest ways to do so. That being said, you should avoid intentionally increasing your testosterone if you are still an adolescent or if you’re an adult with normal or undiagnosed levels.
Once your elevate testosterone levels, you will also sharpen your focus, enhance sports performance, and enjoy enormous competitive spirit. You will also soon notice that the lack of motivation is no longer your problem. Being highly motivated and aggressive due to the action of testosterone boosters, you will experience better muscle gain. Whether you are a novice or a professional sportsman, you will quickly reach your sports goals.
A testicular action was linked to circulating blood fractions – now understood to be a family of androgenic hormones – in the early work on castration and testicular transplantation in fowl by Arnold Adolph Berthold (1803–1861).[177] Research on the action of testosterone received a brief boost in 1889, when the Harvard professor Charles-Édouard Brown-Séquard (1817–1894), then in Paris, self-injected subcutaneously a "rejuvenating elixir" consisting of an extract of dog and guinea pig testicle. He reported in The Lancet that his vigor and feeling of well-being were markedly restored but the effects were transient,[178] and Brown-Séquard's hopes for the compound were dashed. Suffering the ridicule of his colleagues, he abandoned his work on the mechanisms and effects of androgens in human beings.
Some of the effects of testosterone treatment are well recognised and it seems clear that testosterone treatment for aging hypogonadal men can be expected to increase lean body mass, decrease visceral fat mass, increase bone mineral density and decrease total cholesterol. Beneficial effects have been seen in many trials on other parameters such as glycemic control in diabetes, erectile dysfunction, cardiovascular risk factors, angina, mood and cognition. These potentially important effects require confirmation in larger clinical trials. Indeed, it is apparent that longer duration randomized controlled trials of testosterone treatment in large numbers of men are needed to confirm the effects of testosterone on many aspects of aging male health including cardiovascular health, psychiatric health, prostate cancer and functional capacity. In the absence of such studies, it is necessary to balance risk and benefit on the best available data. At the present time the data supports the treatment of hypogonadal men with testosterone to normalize testosterone levels and improve symptoms. Most men with hypogonadism do not have a contraindication to treatment, but it is important to monitor for adverse consequences including prostate complications and polycythemia.
Testosterone levels are usually highest during your adolescent years, but since your hormones fluctuate regularly during this time of your life, it's best to let them naturally adjust themselves rather than attempting to change them yourself.[23] If you're concerned about low testosterone as a teenager, consult with your doctor before making any changes.

If you are serious about losing weight, you have got to strictly limit the amount of processed sugar in your diet, as evidence is mounting that excess sugar, and fructose in particular, is the primary driving factor in the obesity epidemic. So cutting soda from your diet is essential, as is limiting fructose found in processed foods, fruit juice, excessive fruit and so-called "healthy" sweeteners like agave.
Bottom line: testosterone boosters aren’t right for a lot of people. We dive deep into ingredient research below, but typically, testosterone boosters contain at least one (and often three or more) different ingredients that each impact your circulatory system — both the heart and blood. If you’re taking any kind of blood-thinner medication, or you have a history of heart disease, these supplements can get really dangerous, really quickly. The simple fact of the matter is that hormones are tricky things to mess with, and a doctor should be your first port of call to help you safely achieve your goals — whether they’re related to fitness, weight, or libido.
Some good techniques is to practice slow breathing or do something which you enjoy. You must remove as many things that stress you as possible. The more mentally stressed you are the more cortisol your body will release and the more testosterone your body will destroy. My advice for becoming relaxed would be meditation or yoga. This is a great way to burn calories, stretch and feel a sense of inner peace.
Dr. Wyne, in Houston, said, "When I hear a catchy little phrase, or someone is trying to get us to use a drug that is not based on clinical data, the cynical part of me asks where did it come from." She added, "There is a very important role for testosterone replacement therapy. It's wonderful that we have all these options, but we need to be using them appropriately, in a safe and efficacious manner."
The partial synthesis in the 1930s of abundant, potent testosterone esters permitted the characterization of the hormone's effects, so that Kochakian and Murlin (1936) were able to show that testosterone raised nitrogen retention (a mechanism central to anabolism) in the dog, after which Allan Kenyon's group[186] was able to demonstrate both anabolic and androgenic effects of testosterone propionate in eunuchoidal men, boys, and women. The period of the early 1930s to the 1950s has been called "The Golden Age of Steroid Chemistry",[187] and work during this period progressed quickly. Research in this golden age proved that this newly synthesized compound—testosterone—or rather family of compounds (for many derivatives were developed from 1940 to 1960), was a potent multiplier of muscle, strength, and well-being.[188]

Puberty occurs when there is an “awakening” of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis. The hypothalamus increases its secretion of gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) which in turn stimulates the release of luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH). This leads to a significant increase in the production of testicular testosterone and the induction of the well-known secondary sex characteristics associated with puberty: growth spurt, increased libido, increased erectile function, acne, increased body hair, increased muscle mass, deepening of the voice, spermatogenesis, gynecomastia (usually transient).
Epidemiological studies have also assessed links between serum testosterone and non-coronary atherosclerosis. A study of over 1000 people aged 55 years and over found an inverse correlation between serum total and bioavailable testosterone and the amount of aortic atherosclerosis in men, as assessed by radiological methods (Hak et al 2002). Increased intima-media thickness (IMT) is an early sign of atherosclerosis and has also been shown to predict cardiovascular mortality (Murakami et al 2005). Cross-sectional studies have found that testosterone levels are negatively correlated with carotid IMT in independently living men aged 74–93 years (van den Beld et al 2003), diabetic men (Fukui et al 2003) and young obese men (De Pergola et al 2003). A 4-year follow up study of the latter population showed that free testosterone was also inversely correlated with the rate of increase of IMT (Muller et al 2004).
More can be learned from a large, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of finasteride treatment in 18,800 men aged 55 or more. Finasteride is a 5α-reductase inhibitor which acts to prevent the metabolism of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone (DHT) – the most active androgen in the prostate. The trial showed a greater overall incidence of prostate cancer in the control group, but men treated with finasteride were more likely to have high grade tumors (Thompson et al 2003), suggesting that reduced androgen exposure of the prostate may delay the presentation of prostate cancer and/or promote advanced disease in some other way.

Both testosterone and 5α-DHT are metabolized mainly in the liver.[1][151] Approximately 50% of testosterone is metabolized via conjugation into testosterone glucuronide and to a lesser extent testosterone sulfate by glucuronosyltransferases and sulfotransferases, respectively.[1] An additional 40% of testosterone is metabolized in equal proportions into the 17-ketosteroids androsterone and etiocholanolone via the combined actions of 5α- and 5β-reductases, 3α-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, and 17β-HSD, in that order.[1][151][152] Androsterone and etiocholanolone are then glucuronidated and to a lesser extent sulfated similarly to testosterone.[1][151] The conjugates of testosterone and its hepatic metabolites are released from the liver into circulation and excreted in the urine and bile.[1][151][152] Only a small fraction (2%) of testosterone is excreted unchanged in the urine.[151]
It is now well-established that elderly men with type 2 diabetes mellitus have reduced levels of testosterone (Barrett-Connor 1992; Betancourt-Albrecht and Cunningham 2003). It is known, however, that obese men and diabetic men have reduced levels of SHBG (Barrett-Connor 1990) which could account for the lower total testosterone levels found in diabetic men. Dhindsa et al (2004) studied 103 male patients who had type 2 diabetes mellitus using free testosterone (done by equilibrium dialysis) or calculated free testosterone which takes SHBG levels into account. Of the 103 patients, 57 had free testosterone by equilibrium dialysis and of these, 14 (25%) had a free T below 0.174 nmol/L and were considered hypogonadal. Using a total testosterone of 10.4 nmol/L (300ng/dl) as the lower limit of normal 45 patients (43%) were in the hypogonadal range. They also found that LH and FSH concentrations were significantly lower in the hypogonadal group. The authors thus concluded that hypogonadotropic hypogonadism was a common finding in type 2 diabetes irrespective of glycemic control, duration of disease or the presence of complications of diabetes or obesity.
Intracoronary artery infusion of testosterone causes significant coronary artery dilatation and not constriction as previously thought (Webb et al 1999). When degree of coronary obstruction is assessed by angiography, there is a direct relationship between degree of coronary artery narrowing and reduced testosterone levels (Phillips et al 1994). Men with low testosterone levels have been observed to have: premature atherosclerosis, increased visceral adipose tissue, hyperinsulinemia, and other risk factors for myocardial infarction (Phillips 2005). Insulin resistance has been shown to be associated with a decrease in Leydig cell secretion of testosterone (Pitteloud et al 2005). Muller and colleagues suggest that low endogenous total testosterone and SHBG levels increase the risk of metabolic syndrome in aging and aged men. They demonstrated that low levels of testosterone are related to lower insulin sensitivity and higher fasting insulin levels (Muller et al 2005). These authors speculate that testosterone might play a protective role in the development of metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance, diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease in aging men.
THIS TOOL DOES NOT PROVIDE MEDICAL ADVICE. It is intended for general informational purposes only and does not address individual circumstances. It is not a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis or treatment and should not be relied on to make decisions about your health. Never ignore professional medical advice in seeking treatment because of something you have read on the WebMD Site. If you think you may have a medical emergency, immediately call your doctor or dial 911.
If you want to naturally boost testosterone and HGH then combining weight training with HIIT workouts (high intensity interval training). Go to the gym at least three days a week, ideally at least three days a week, and lift heavy weights. Lifting heavy weights 6–12 reps with larger muscle groups like your quadriceps, hamstrings, back, shoulders and chest will help your body pack on the maximum amount of muscle. Specifically, lifting at least 30 minutes up to as long as an hour or so can be very, very beneficial boost low testosterone levels.
I highly recommend using a great essential amino acid mix post-exercise in order to boost testosterone.  These essential amino acids and especially the concentrated branched chain amino acids leucine, isoleucine and valine stimulate muscle protein synthesis.  Getting these amino acids in the post-workout window dramatically boosts testosterone production (14).  I like using our Amino Strong and will often recommend a scoop pre-workout and post-workout for the best muscle building, testosterone boosting benefits.
We start with plastic. A lot of plastic contains bisphenol A (BPA); BPA is a weak synthetic estrogen. Like many other chemicals used in making plastics, BPA is a hormone disruptor and can block or mimic hormones and how they act in the body (34). If you think you’re safe with BPA plastic, think again. Research shows that BPA free plastic has similar estrogen-like effects on the body.
Once you have surpassed your early twenties, natural testosterone levels slowly begin to decline. This is a natural occurrence which occurs in all men, however can be prevented to some extent by ensuring your diet is rich in vitamins, minerals and quality fats. You can also supplement with a Natural Testosterone Booster which will work by encouraging your body to produce more Testosterone, back up to levels you could produce in your younger years.
Dixon Troyer is the President of Operations at 3 Elements Lifestyle, LLC., a Fitness and Weight Loss company that specializes in YOU! With more than 15 years of gym and club experience, owning, operating and managing clubs of all sizes, Dixon lectures, delivers seminars and workshops on the practical skills required to successfully help you with your health and fitness goals. Dixon also helps you build the teamwork, management, and training necessary to open your own fitness center.

Do low levels of testosterone produce symptoms in middle-aged men? Absolutely. In fact, the classic symptoms were first recognized more than 70 years ago when two American physicians, Carl Heller, MD, and Gordon Myers, MD, showed the effectiveness of testosterone treatment for symptoms of fatigue, depression, irritability, low sex drive, erectile dysfunction, night sweats, and hot flashes in men. Over the years, subsequent studies have found that some—but not all—men with low, age-adjusted testosterone levels exhibit symptoms consistent with andropause. All experience improvement with testosterone therapy.
Drugs.com provides accurate and independent information on more than 24,000 prescription drugs, over-the-counter medicines and natural products. This material is provided for educational purposes only and is not intended for medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. Data sources include IBM Watson Micromedex (updated 1 Mar 2019), Cerner Multum™ (updated 1 Mar 2019), Wolters Kluwer™ (updated 28 Feb 2019) and others. Refer to our editorial policy for content sources and attributions.

It may also become a treatment for anemia, bone density and strength problems. In a 2017 study published in the journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA), testosterone treatments corrected anemia in older men with low testosterone levels better than a placebo. Another 2017 study published in JAMA found that older men with low testosterone had increased bone strength and density after treatment when compared with a placebo. 
A previous meta-analysis has confirmed that treatment of hypogonadal patients with testosterone improves erections compared to placebo (Jain et al 2000). A number of studies have investigated the effect of testosterone levels on erectile dysfunction in normal young men by inducing a hypogonadal state, for example by using a GnRH analogue, and then replacing testosterone at varying doses to produce levels ranging from low-normal to high (Buena et al 1993; Hirshkowitz et al 1997). These studies have shown no significant effects of testosterone on erectile function. These findings contrast with a similar study conducted in healthy men aged 60–75, showing that free testosterone levels achieved with treatment during the study correlate with overall sexual function, including morning erections, spontaneous erections and libido (Gray et al 2005). This suggests that the men in this older age group are particularly likely to suffer sexual symptoms if their testosterone is low. Furthermore, the severity of erectile dysfunction positively correlates with lower testosterone levels in men with type 2 diabetes (Kapoor, Clarke et al 2007).
That testosterone decreases with age has been clearly established by many studies over many years in several different populations of men (Harman et al 2001; Feldman et al 2002; Araujo et al 2004; Kaufman and Vermeulen 2005). Of even greater significance is the steeper fall of the most biologically active fraction of total testosterone, non-sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG)- bound testosterone, or bioavailable testosterone (bio-T). The classical, but not the only approach to measuring bio-T, is to precipitate out SHBG (and hence the testosterone which is strongly bound to it as well) and measure the remainder as total testosterone (Tremblay 2003). Vermeulen et al (1999) have devised a less tedious and less expensive method of measuring a surrogate for bio-T, namely calculated bio-T, inserting total T, albumin, SHBG and a constant into a mathematical formulation. There is a strong correlation between actual bio-T and calculated bio-T (Emadi-Konjin et al 2003).
The effects of testosterone in humans and other vertebrates occur by way of multiple mechanisms: by activation of the androgen receptor (directly or as DHT), and by conversion to estradiol and activation of certain estrogen receptors.[109][110] Androgens such as testosterone have also been found to bind to and activate membrane androgen receptors.[111][112][113]
Ashwagandha is sometimes included in testosterone supplements because of the hypothesis that it improves fertility. However, we couldn’t find sufficient evidence to support this claim (at best, one study found that ashwagandha might improve cardiorespiratory endurance). WebMD advocates caution when taking this herb, as it may interact with immunosuppressants, sedative medications, and thyroid hormone medications.

Mínguez-Alarcón, L., Chavarro, J. E., Mendiola, J., Roca, M., Tanrikut, C., Vioque, J., ... Torres-Cantero, A. M. (2017, March–April). Fatty acid intake in relation to reproductive hormones and testicular volume among young healthy men [Abstract]. Asian Journal of Andrology, 19(2), 184–190. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27834316
Travison, T. G., Vesper, H. W., Orwoll, E, Wu, F., Kaufman, J. M., Wang, Y., …Bhasin, S. (2017, April1). Harmonized reference ranges for circulating testosterone levels in men of four cohort studies in the United States and Europe. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 102(4), 1161–1173. Retrieved from https://academic.oup.com/jcem/article/102/4/1161/2884621

A related issue is the potential use of testosterone as a coronary vasodilator and anti-anginal agent. Testosterone has been shown to act as a vasodilator of coronary arteries at physiological concentrations during angiography (Webb, McNeill et al 1999). Furthermore men given a testosterone injection prior to exercise testing showed improved performance, as assessed by ST changes compared to placebo (Rosano et al 1999; Webb, Adamson et al 1999). Administration of one to three months of testosterone treatment has also been shown to improve symptoms of angina and exercise test performance (Wu and Weng 1993; English et al 2000; Malkin, Pugh, Morris et al 2004). Longer term studies are underway. It is thought that testosterone improves angina due its vasodilatory action, which occurs independently of the androgen receptor, via blockade of L-type calcium channels at the cell membrane of the vascular smooth muscle in an action similar to the dihydropyridine calcium-channel blockers such as nifedipine (Hall et al 2006).
Findings that improvements in serum glucose, serum insulin, insulin resistance or glycemic control, in men treated with testosterone are accompanied by reduced measures of central obesity, are in line with other studies showing a specific effect of testosterone in reducing central or visceral obesity (Rebuffe-Scrive et al 1991; Marin, Holmang et al 1992). Furthermore, studies that have shown neutral effects of testosterone on glucose metabolism have not measured (Corrales et al 2004), or shown neutral effects (Lee et al 2005) (Tripathy et al 1998; Bhasin et al 2005) on central obesity. Given the known association of visceral obesity with insulin resistance, it is possible that testosterone treatment of hypogonadal men acts to improve insulin resistance and diabetes through an effect in reducing central obesity. This effect can be explained by the action of testosterone in inhibiting lipoprotein lipase and thereby reducing triglyceride uptake into adipocytes (Sorva et al 1988), an action which seems to occur preferentially in visceral fat (Marin et al 1995; Marin et al 1996). Visceral fat is thought to be more responsive to hormonal changes due to a greater concentration of androgen receptors and increased vascularity compared with subcutaneous fat (Bjorntorp 1996). Further explanation of the links between hypogonadism and obesity is offered by the hypogonadal-obesity-adipocytokine cycle hypothesis (see Figure 1). In this model, increases in body fat lead to increases in aromatase levels, in addition to insulin resistance, adverse lipid profiles and increased leptin levels. Increased action of aromatase in metabolizing testosterone to estrogen, reduces testosterone levels which induces further accumulation of visceral fat. Higher leptin levels and possibly other factors, act at the pituitary to suppress gonadotrophin release and exacerbate hypogonadism (Cohen 1999; Kapoor et al 2005). Leptin has also been shown to reduce testosterone secretion from rodent testes in vitro (Tena-Sempere et al 1999). A full review of the relationship between testosterone, insulin resistance and diabetes can be found elsewhere (Kapoor et al 2005; Jones 2007).
Zinc is involved in virtually every aspect of male reproduction, including testosterone metabolism. Several studies support the use of zinc for treating low sperm counts, especially when accompanied by low testosterone levels. In these studies, zinc has shown an ability to raise both sperm counts and testosterone levels. Many men may be suffering from low testosterone simply because of a zinc deficiency. Taking 30–45 mg of zinc per day is recommended; balance with 2–3 mg of copper for best results.
Every ingredient can be harmful when taken in significant quantities (we go more into that below), so we pored over each booster’s ingredient list to make sure that they weren’t serving up an overdose. In particular, we took a close look at magnesium and zinc, which have enough scientific background behind them to offer hard upper limits on how much you can safely consume.
If you are serious about losing weight, you have got to strictly limit the amount of processed sugar in your diet, as evidence is mounting that excess sugar, and fructose in particular, is the primary driving factor in the obesity epidemic. So cutting soda from your diet is essential, as is limiting fructose found in processed foods, fruit juice, excessive fruit and so-called "healthy" sweeteners like agave.

The hormone also plays a role in sex drive, sperm production, fat distribution, red cell production, and maintenance of muscle strength and mass, according to the Mayo Clinic. For these reasons, testosterone is associated with overall health and well-being in men. One 2008 study published in the journal Frontiers of Hormone Research even linked testosterone to the prevention of osteoporosis in men.
×